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Why "BeCSR"?

Before starting the programme, it was important to identify factors that affect social & emotional resilience in both teachers, parents, and students. Relevant literature was collected and analyzed to create the basis for the programme. It can be seen and downloaded below as a handbook for future use. 

Please click on the image below download and study the BeCSR Literature Review, and reflect on the following questions

The key points seen below can be used to promote further discussion and reflection

The BeCSR Literature Review explores specific components of ICAM which relate to social and emotional learning in the digital world, and away from the governed and controlled cyberspace of, for example,  a formal school learning platform or online lesson delivery.

Key Points Page 2

For more information on this topic, visit Page 2 of the BeCSR Literature Review

"...In reviewing the literature relating to children affected by migration, particularly within the context of cyber safety and responsibility, evidence points towards two key areas of focus: individual development of resilience and the agency of the other (adults and peers)..."

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Think about:
  • Which elements does my school community address well, and what evidence do I have to support my assertion?

  • Which areas would be a priority for development?

Key Points Page 4

Strenght's Based Approach 
(asset-based approach) 

For more information on this topic, visit Page 4 of the BeCSR Literature Review

Research in the area of resilience further opened the path for the movement from deficit models of practice to a strengths-based approach. Positive psychologists (Clonan et al., 2004) suggest schools can serve as the vehicle for promoting positive human development, moving away from endeavors to repair weaknesses and towards the development of positive qualities. 

They highlight the need for systematic approaches to forming positive developmental settings, which provide: physical and psychological safety, appropriate structure, supportive relationships, opportunities to belong, positive social norms, support for efficacy and, opportunities for skill-building, and integration of family, school, and community efforts (Eccles & Gootman, 2002).  

Key Points Page 6

Systemic Practice Theory of Change 

For more information on this topic, visit Page 6 of the BeCSR Literature Review

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…where the agency of all those involved and interaction/transaction with ‘the other’ is a central element of the approach

Key Points Page 7

The Power of a Strengths-Based Approach

For more information on this topic, visit Page 7 of the BeCSR Literature Review

Block et al. (2018) in their research amongst 79 adult refugees in Pittsburgh (predominantly Bhutanese and Iraqi), highlight the positiveness of a strengths-based approach in helping refugees make friends, get information, become more independent, and feel better about life in America; in addition, the approach supported individuals in talking about their concerns and feeling a stronger sense of trust within their own community. The eight-week programme, informed by and developed from the Centre for Torture and Trauma Survivors Clubhouse Model trained paraprofessionals and peer educator leaders from within the refugee communities and established specific aims; reduce feelings of isolation; build community networks, and improve feelings of empowerment within the community.

Key Points Page 7

For more information on this topic, visit Page 7 of the BeCSR Literature Review

Findings suggested that those with higher personal and cultural assets at the outset, were less likely to feel/notice discrimination and were also more likely to show academic persistence. The researchers concluded that their model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents’ assets on their academic persistence.


In other words, build SEL not seek to protect CAM more!  

Think about:

How do we define the “cultural assets” that are most needed when new migrants join our wider community?

  • Attitudes and values? Slang and colloquialisms? Expectations? Clothing? Safe streets and unsafe streets?

Key Points Page 10

On Bullying and Cyberbullying

For more information on this topic, visit Page 10 of the BeCSR Literature Review

"...However, perhaps less surprisingly, those giving evidence to the Commission, placed cyberbullying in the field of social rather than technological issues; underlining the centrality of building school climates, normalizing pro-social behaviours (i.e., responsible digital citizenship), supporting student-led initiatives, and facilitating student resilience, with students having an adult to turn to if they are concerned. (Federal Commission on School Safety, 2018)...."  

Think about:
  • How does cyberbullying fit into current school policy and curriculum addressing bullying and harassment?


  • How is the school community empowered to protect each other from bullying (bystander empowerment, anti-bullying teams, peer supporters, etc.)?


  • Does the school community talk about pro-social behaviours? How can the idea of pro-social behaviours be grown and developed to support “Convivencia”?

Key Points Page 12 and onward

On Bullying and Cyberbullying

For more information on this topic, visit Page 12 and onward of the BeCSR Literature Review

Good examples of work from Australia and EU

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Additional resources

Click on the picture below to explore the interactive materials

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Think about:
  • Which aspects of CAM vulnerability are of most concern to you (there may be specific age- or community-based issues that come into play in your community)?

  • What steps can your community take to address these concerns?

OECD Handbook is an additional resource used in the literature review. To download the full Handbook, click on the image below:

Key Points

The OECD (2018) develops the concept of resilience in the context of immigrant adolescents, highlighting the multifaceted nature of resilience with the following interrelated aspects- all applicable to the digital environment:  

  • Adversity - the process of migration for students and/or their parents and the hardships (social-economic, cultural, and others) as a result of leaving their country. 

  • Adjustment- the positive adaptation, including academic, social, emotional, and motivational. 

  • Vulnerability- the likelihood of acquiring social, emotional, motivational, and academic skills.  

  • Risk and protective factors- refers to all the characteristics impacting vulnerability and the extent to which immigrant adolescents are exposed to risk and protective factors and the impact this has on their outcomes

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